Month: July 2017

Warwick Beer Festival 21st – 22nd July 2017

Warwick is renowned for its Castle and its proximity to tourist hotspot Stratford on Avon. Warwick is not renowned for many beery events. However, every July for the last few years, Warwick Racecourse has hosted a Beer Festival. This year’s event coincidentally coincided with the inaugural Birmingham Beer Week twenty miles up the road. Hosted by Warwick Court Leet for the last few years, the event has two purposes: to provide the local community an enjoyable weekend of beer and also importantly to raise money to support local charities and good causes. Local businesses sponsor individual casks whilst breweries’ including Purity and Byatt’s provided further significant sponsorship this year.

 

 

We decided to hit the Friday evening session as in previous years several casks had run dry by the Saturday afternoon. Weather was poor but there was already a sizable crowd by the time we arrived, which meant that the indoor area was quite packed due to little of the outdoor seating being used. We purchased our custom half-pint glass and tasting notes and headed for the bar.

Eighty-five beers were on offer, all on gravity cask dispense, augmented by thirty ciders available for those seeking solace in the form of apples. Those looking for Lambics, searching for Saisons or delving for DIPA’s may have been a little disappointed though as this is a traditional CAMRA real ale style festival. First drink of the evening had to be Sarah Hughes Ruby Mild, a long time favourite beer from the Black Country and fairly rare to find in Warwickshire. It’s rich fruitiness makes it a dangerously drinkable beer especially as although billed as a mild, it is a powerful 6% ABV.

The serving system at this festival is a little different to the norm, as the casks are all numbered to match your tasting notes so you order purely by number, not by beer name and tokens are used for payment equating to £1.50 a half pint. Whilst this speeds up service, it does mean your tasting notes are essential as the bar staff have little knowledge about what they are actually serving. The volunteers worked hard though and there were no long waits to get served.

Food was available but I have to say that the options were fairly limited as there was only one burger van offering a choice of hot dogs, burgers and hog roast. If you are vegetarian your only option was chips! I think in these diverse times a vegetarian/vegan option should be provided. Sadly, no options for water to drink or rinse your glass were provided either, unless you purchased some bottled water. This does seem to be a pretty common omission at most other festivals. Live music was provided throughout the festival ranging from acoustic duos to full bands playing a mixture of covers and original material. Sadly the incessant drizzle meant no option to get outside for a quieter conversation with friends.

Standout beers of the festival for me included the rare occasionally brewed Black Voodoo from West Yorkshire’s Fernandes Brewery, a smooth full-bodied stout with a chocolate orange and vanilla flavour that would make it a perfect dessert beer. Along similar lines was the Plum Porter from Titanic Brewery, which was dark and well rounded with the plums to the fore but not overly sweet or cloying. An imperial version of this would be a real winter favourite. I tended to go for the darker beers on offer, finding some of the pale ales a bit bland and lacking the hoppy bite and zest that my palate has become accustomed to over the last few years. The one beer that did have a decent hop-kick though was the classic Citra from Oakham Ales, which provided the pungent grapefruit and lychee goodness that I was craving.

Overall, despite the poor weather being a slight hindrance, the festival had another successful year. The organisers put a lot of work in, including having to replace the posters in Warwick three times after they had been stolen, presumably by some underground temperance movement! Here’s to another successful festival next year.

Goskino vs Burning Soul – 27th July

Ahead of Goskino playing at Burning Soul, this Thursday (27th), I dropped both the band and the brewery a few questions to find out how the gig had come about and what people could expect.

I started out by asking Burning Soul how the gig came about:

“We’re both really into live music so naturally love the idea of having local bands playing here. It feels like we have been discussing having live music since we opened to the public last October. Since this will be the first time we’re really excited to see how it goes and hopefully open the door to more small gigs showcasing local talent.”

“We have a very diverse taste in music but you’ll often find blues or rock on it the taproom Friday and Saturdays. Greg from Goskino drinks at Burning Soul often and was kind enough to give us a copy of their album a while back which we really enjoyed, so when he asked if it was possible to play at the brewery the reply was somewhere along the lines of “hell yeah”!

“This is also the first time we have had a street food vendor at Burning Soul so we’re excited to see how that goes for Trailer Trash who are coming down and hooking people up with some mean burgers. People often say the only problem with our place is the fact we don’t do food so getting some street food vendors for our Saturday opening is definitely something were looking into.

I asked if they’d had time to brew anything special for the gig:

“We haven’t brewed a beer especially, but we will have some special Fuzz Bomb edition bottles of our Zephyr Saison with some awesome artwork from the Goskino guys as well as our 8 taps.  We’ve held back some kegs of our new IPA ‘Pure Passion’ and our black IPA especially for the event and there should be some new beers coming on as well.”

As you may not know Goskino I asked them to describe their sound, how they felt about playing a brewery (a first for them) and what are their favourite beers:

Goskino are a three piece plying their trade in fuzz laden garage rock. Unabashed short fuzzy fast edgy songs delivered with unfetted conviction. Tom on guitar and vocals, Adam on Bass and Greg on drums. 

The guys at Burning Soul seem to have a similar ethos to the band, no sense of doing things by halves – total commitment to what they are doing. Elegant, spiky, complex and super tasty beers abound. Goskino playing at the Brewery is a perfect match. Let’s hope Goskino’s notorious volume doesn’t curdle the beer!

Tom – Corona

Adam – Stroud Brewery – Budding

Greg – Burning Soul OCT

Doors are due to open with the band on at 7 but the brewery told me:

“We’ll have the bar open from 5pm so anyone who doesn’t mind a bit of a sound check is welcome to come and grab a beer before the official 7pm start and on stage time of 8pm.”

So come along and support a local band, brewery and street food vendor all in one night!

Birmingham Brewery Tour – Review

Birmingham Brewery Tours (part of UK Brewery Tours) have been running since March this year and I was very happy when they invited me along to join them this month to see what it was all about*.

The tour starts at 2pm at Rock and Roll Brewhouse in the Jewellery Quarter. I was met by our guide for the day, Stuart, along with Lynne and Mark from the brewery.

The first thing I noticed, as I’ve not been in for a while, was the new seating area – they’ve purchased the adjoining unit and knocked through to make a lovely area complete with windows which really lightens up the whole bar. We were soon joined by the rest of our group – newlyweds Joe and Elaine and father and son Joe and Joe (at least I didn’t have any trouble remembering people’s names!). There were 2 beers being poured as part of the tour Thirst Aid Kit and British Beer Power and we had our first half as Mark took us into the brewery complete with coloured lights and disco ball! He told us about his history in brewing from his days as a homebrewer, through his time at Banks’ and brewing on the roof of the Lamp Tavern in Digbeth. We were surprised to learn we were surrounded by 200 year old walls and that their fermentation vessels are wine tanks from Italy. He told us that the ethos of the whole brewery was “a little space for people who love beer and music” hence the name and all the memorabilia and records lining the walls. The whole group were really interested and asked lots of questions. No one (apart from me) had been there before or, in some cases, even knew it existed and I think this is the great part of this tour taking people to these hidden gems. Then it was time to move on so we left wishing Lynne and Mark a happy birthday as it had been the taproom’s birthday the night before and moved on to our next location – Burning Soul.

By coincidence Burning Soul are also celebrating a birthday as it is one year since they got the keys to the unit – the taproom will celebrate its birthday later in the year! As before none of the rest of the group had been here previously and again they were immediately impressed. Chris and Richard were there to greet us and pour us our first beers – here we had the choice of the whole board and as in Rock and Roll we could have 3 halves. Richard took us into the brewery and gave everyone a potted history from the garage brewing days, via ebay and retrofitting equipment to the newest conditioning vessel just arrived, if slightly dented, that week. He then showed the group a range of malts which we could smell and taste along with some hops as he explained the brewing process.

Again the atmosphere was very relaxed with everyone really enjoying the beers and asking lots of questions. We stayed there for around an hour and then it was time to go to our final destination Pure Bar and Kitchen.

The final part of the day was a little different. As this is not the brewery itself we were there to have a short tutored tasting of some beers led by Sam from the bar. We were told that Purity like to pair their beers with food so we had some small snacks to try with our beers – sausage rolls, cheese, gherkins and chocolate chips. We tasted a range of Purity beers both on draft and from cans, not everyone in the group had been to the bar before and they were interested to hear more about the beers and also try the different food pairings. We were also lucky enough to get a brief glimpse into the cellar which allowed us to see how the beer is stored and transported up to the pumps in the bar above.

To finish off I talked to the group about their experience of the day and here are some of their quotes – “Impressed with how it was handled and the personal experience, hands on, sampling the beer.” “Very welcoming, very nice people.” “Overall a great day and just the right size group, 6 to 8 is enough. It’s more personal.” “We didn’t know any of these places existed we will definitely go back to all the locations and we will bring our friends too.”

I would definitely recommend this tour to anyone who’s not tried these breweries before. It’s a good day out, everyone on the tour was really interested and Stuart was a great, knowledgeable guide.

*I was invited to attend the tour by the organisers and did not pay however this has not impacted my views.

Birmingham Beer Week – Opportunity for Adventure and New Discoveries

It starts!

Well, it actually started yesterday with the fine fellows at Brum Vegan Beer & Food Fest, but today marks the first day of the Birmingham Beer Week, an opportunity for the drinkers of Birmingham (and Beyond) to explore the fantastic beer scene we have in here in the countries 2nd City.

Many of the people who follow us and read our blogs are likely to already know about much of what is available in Birmingham but we would encourage our readers to be adventurous, if you haven’t had chance to check out what The Dark Horse Moseley has to offer, why not go along to the Moseley Craft Beer Festival

Check out our interview with the organiser here

Perhaps you haven’t explored the beers being made by our local brewers?  They check out the Collab Beer Launch with Twisted Barrel and Blackjack at The Wolf.

The adventure to had is not just yours alone, with so many great events across the 10 day, it’s the perfect opportunity to help friends and family, perhaps even work colleagues, to discover the beery goodness on offer in Birmingham.  (More people drinking local beer, more people drinking in local venues, the better it is for the scene.

Maybe your Uncle is Vegan, Brum Vegan fest offer a great chance to introduce them to the wonders of Vegan beer.  Or you could head over to Cherry Reds for the ‘When is Beer Not Vegan?’ a Vegan dinner and beer pairing.  (At John Bright Street & Kings Heath).

Perhaps your sister is a big gig goer and particularly likes Fuzzrock then why not take them along to Burning Soul Brewery for the Goskino V Burning Soul gig, giving them the chance to enjoy great local beers while tapping their feet. (or what ever the Fuzzrock alternative is)

And if you just want to party with your friends, the bars on John Bright Street have got your back with a Street Party.

There are lots to explore and many beer adventures to be had over the next 10 days,  we hope to see Birmingham Beer Week be a great success, bring new customers to venues and breweries across the city and showcase how great the beer scene is…And perhaps next year it will be even bigger, with even more events and amazing beers on offer for the beer drinking public of the city.

We have given just a small taste of the events over the Beer Week, to see the full program check out www.birminghambeerweek.uk

Pirate Life – They Come from a Land Down Under!

Whilst out for a farewell drink with Gwen (see my previous blog “Au Revoir Sacre Brew…”) we popped into Brewdog who were having a showcase from Pirate Life. Never one to miss a blog opportunity I sat with Sean Robertson (European Developer) to have a chat about this Australian brewery and their plans for the UK.

The brewery, based in Adelaide, started about two and a half years ago and the two founding brewers, Jack Cameron & Jared Refert started their brewing lives at Brewdog in Ellon. From there they went to Little Creatures and Cheeky Monkey respectively before Jack’s father raised the money to set them up in their own brewery. The brewery has grown 15 fold in two and a half years and is moving toward 220 thousand litres a month. They now brew 17 styles of beer, with staff increasing from 6 to 36 people including 6 brewers.

The event was more of a meet and greet however Sean told me they had a more full on program of meet the brewer type events planned at other Brewdog bars over the coming weeks. He told me the relationship comes from starting at Brewdog but there is still a healthy competition!
The brewers intend to come over to the UK and Europe every 10 weeks, having freed themselves from the brewery, to drive forward events, Q&As and promotion. We agreed this will be great for them to see the challenges facing breaking into other markets.

We talked about the challenges of bringing beer from so far away and I found out that the beers are shipped in chilled transport for their 6 week journey and that Pirate Life are passionate about maintaining an all cold supply chain. Within Australia they have their own distribution network but to bring beer to the UK they have had to have a number of trial runs. The first shipment was not great with the Throwback IPA, particularly, not travelling well. They tweaked the temperature on the 20ft refrigerated units and dropped it to 3C – it seems 3 was the magic number! They were now on container number 3 with container 4 on the way with, so far, only the core range coming over but it’s arriving in great shape.

I was also pleased to hear that they didn’t want to be London-centric but would be UK wide getting into “grass roots and off piste smaller towns”. They are using smaller distributors to get into these smaller locations and hope to have around 10 distribution partners by the end of the year.

In Australia 83% of their market is cans, the UK market is much more draft focused and much more competitive in general. Also the market in Australia is much more focused on bottle shops but the team have taken the approach to “blend in” with the UK sales profile focusing on wider sales channels. Sean told me they are keen to spearhead the import of Australian beers “We are aware, as Pirate Life Europe, we want to be the pioneers of Australian craft beer – we’ve a great history of brewing but there are a lot of hurdles to get over like ‘the original Fosters scenario’. Also Little Creatures have relaunched and Prancing Pony is coming over from the same region as Pirate Life”.

In respect of the beers I drank during the evening I started with a Throwback IPA which tasted really light and fresh with a good grapefruit flavour, the 6.8% IPA which was super hoppy and spot on and finally the 8.8% Double IPA – this really showcased the hoppy flavour and the benefit of that 3 degree shipping. I have to say I was really impressed with them all and would certainly order them again and look out for the cans.

During the interview we talked about various bars in Birmingham and I mentioned the great focus on events at The Wolf and it seems my advice went in as there is an event there on 22nd July for Birmingham Beer Week! So get down there and try some great, fresh tasting Australian beers!

 

Moseley Beer Festival – Birmingham Beer Week Events

With Birmingham Beer Week quickly approaching one of the events we are looking forward to the most is The Dark Horse’s Moseley Craft Beer Festival.  We have been excited by the beers they have announced and particularly impressed with the balance of beers from nationally recognised breweries like Cloudwater and Siren,  and local Midlands breweries, such as Moseley Beer Company & Burning Soul

We wanted to know more about the event that will close Beer Week on 28th to the 30th July so posed some questions to one of the organisers Andy.

How long have you been planning the festival?  Was the Beer Week happy coincidence or inspiration?

I had the idea for the beer festival back in January, as The Dark Horse has got a live music space upstairs and unused space out back which I thought would allow us to do something on a decent scale. The general feeling was that we should wait until the end of the year to give us plenty of time to plan it, but when the guys at Birmingham Beer Week asked us if we wanted to do something it seemed like the perfect time to take a punt and see if we could do it. The downside is we were left with about two and a half months to plan a beer festival, without a clue where to start. I wouldn’t recommend trying this.

What format will the festival take? – individual bars by brewery/style etc?

It’s Birmingham Beer Week and first an foremost we want to promote beer in Birmingham and try to help show that our beer scene is something to be proud of. We’ve got loads of fantastic brewers from across the country getting involved, but we hope that the Birmingham Beer Week bar will take centre stage for the event. There’s some fantastic beers being brewed in the city at the moment. I’d tried the beers that Josh was making at Glasshouse and was blown away, so asked him if he could brew an exclusive for us. He came up with the brilliantly named ‘0121 Brew One’, and everyone who buys a ticket will get one of these for free on arrival. There will also be an MCBF bar pouring some great brews from breweries who sadly weren’t able to make it along.

 

The rest of the bars will be stalls from the different breweries who were kind enough to come along and join us to make this a great event.

This is where the Drinks will be flowing.

How have you chosen the breweries and beer to include in the festival?

As I said earlier, I didn’t really have any idea where to start with the festival, but thankfully the guys at Birmingham Beer Week HQ were good enough to offer me advice. I came up with a list of my favourite breweries, looking for both big names as well as breweries I think are under represented. Probably the breweries I was most excited to get on board were Odyssey and Elusive. They’re both pretty small and don’t always get the most hype, but these guys make seriously great beers.

Are their any beers you or your members of staff are looking forward to trying?

For me the beer I can’t wait to try is Fresh Cream from Siren. They’ve held back some of the Bourbon Milkshake to make up special one off kegs for special events and festivals by adding different ingredients. I’m really excited that we’ll have a Siren beer that you won’t be able to try anywhere else except at our festival.

 

 

The staff at the Dark Horse love sour beers so no doubt the Kettle Sour from Cloudwater will be a hit with them.

 

We’re making batches of craft beer ice cream too for the festival – I’ve just tried the sensational Grievous Angel from Odyssey with Chocolate, Coffee and Orange which we’re all looking forward to trying in ice cream form!

Would they see this becoming an annual event?

We hope to see this become an annual event that grows year on year, but I guess that depends on how it’s received by the people who come along. We’re really passionate about great beer and want to share that with the people of Birmingham by putting on the best event we can.

The guys at The Dark Horse have made a strong start and we are sure the event will be a massive success, how could it not with Craft Beer Ice Cream on offer!

It is fantastic to have another event on the calendar for the beer drinkers of Birmingham, and another place for local brewers to sell their beers.

Tickets are still available, pop along to www.skiddle.com

Check out some of the beers on offer below.

Au Revoir Sacre Brew! – Thank You and Good Bye to Gwen

For the past 3 years New Yorker Gwen Sanchirico has been brewing on a 200L kit out of an industrial unit in Wolverhampton but now it is time for her to return to her home city to be closer to her family. Since we’ve covered a lot of her journey here on the blog (and drunk a lot of her beer!) it made sense for us to have one final interview with her before she heads off back to the Big Apple. So it was that in a quiet corner of Cherry Red’s she and I sat down and talked about Alice Donut, beer, Wolverhampton, and washing machines!

So although we’ve talked before on the blog about Gwen coming to the UK I thought it would be good just to recap how a girl from Queens ended up in Wolverhampton! She told me this is the number one questions she’s been asked for the last 5 years and after a brief discussion on alien abduction she said that she’d gone to see Alice Donut in a tiny venue in Brooklyn that isn’t there any more and whilst there she met her now husband Mark and they just hit it off. But it took another 6 months for them to start dating, long distance. After 18 months of this, with money running out, Mark said they’d have to get married and one of them move for the relationship to continue. So after researching the UK and US immigration policies Gwen realised it would be easier for her to come to the UK coupled with the fact she was falling out of love with her role as a project manager for a software development team at a large New York hospital and that Mark loved his job. All the pieces were in place so after marrying in City Hall in New York they moved to Wolverhampton.

Once in the UK Gwen says “I couldn’t get a job for the life of me. I worked really hard at job hunting. It was demoralising and after nearly a year of that I decided to start my own business.”

She started out by entering a competition in Wolverhampton run by the Portas Pilot scheme, which offered a financial award to the winner. Her original idea was to start an “American/Belgian hybrid beer bar/brewpub where the beer is brewed on site.” Once she was in the competition she had some financial mentoring and help with a business plan and she realised that this was too ambitious and she’d need to scale it back. So this is where the idea of Sacre Brew began.

I asked Gwen about her history of brewing and she told me she started home brewing in 1993, which was when it had really started to take off in the US. She said she liked trying “weird and unusual beers” which were beginning to come on the market there. It really started by reading an article in the local paper about the two homebrew shops in all of New York and since she liked to cook and make her own stuff it sounded like something she wanted to try. So with her then-boyfriend they got some equipment and started brewing.

I moved on then to ask Gwen what were the really big challenges she faced in opening a brewery in Wolverhampton? “Starting it was pretty easy. It was easy to raise money as people get excited about beer!” She started out crowdfunding to raise the majority of the money needed to get started and since people were generous and excited by the idea of a microbrewery she soon reached her target. The first challenge was the size. She told me, “I knew how to brew but scaling it up was more difficult than I realised – not because of the process of brewing but the dealing with people.” One of these main issues was with the kit that Gwen purchased – it was so “not fit for purpose” that there was even an informal support group set up to help people who’d bought the kit! It was a catalogue of disasters from missing parts, to those requiring modification right up to the mash tun supplied being smaller than ordered and not capable of brewing more than a 4% beer. She said that she had to learn a lot including the names for parts and connectors etc. as she said she “didn’t have the vocabulary I needed to request parts from vendors.” All in all, this took about 6 months to resolve which was very frustrating. I experienced this when I brewed with Gwen back in August 2014 with my husband for his 40th birthday – overflowing hot liquor tanks, digging out mash tuns without Charles (the wet vac and general life saver!) and flushing buckets of wash water down the toilet.

But it wasn’t all bad – “the best part is going to Cherry Reds, for example, and seeing somebody order your beer and drinking out of the bottle with so much gusto and going ‘ahhh’ in a really satisfied way afterwards is really satisfying. Knowing that people like your beer is really cool.”

Gwen had a second round of crowdfunding for her bottling kit and has always worked with lots of volunteers so I asked her how that experience had been for her. She told me she had a few dedicated volunteers who came to help out on a regular basis for 2 years or more and those who would help out now and again or even just once. Quite a few people who were interested in getting into brewing themselves also worked with Gwen to see what the experience was like and they would come and spend the day seeing a brewery in action.

We moved on to talking about the workshops that Gwen had started running, was this something she enjoyed? “I do enjoy it. I like the science of it, and there’s a lot of science involved. It’s another way for me to interact with people and the workshops didn’t always involve my beer so it wasn’t just about showcasing my beer but talking about beer in general and the bigger picture and what the range and scope and limits are.” She told me that she’s noticed British people don’t like to complain so therefore quality is worse as people don’t complain when they get a bad beer. “If it’s infected or not ready or not made right or they’re lying to you about what it is, that makes me angry and I want to do something about it. So the best way to empower people is to educate them and the bad beer workshops are a fun forum where you get to drink beer and educate people – and they get it.”

Having been in the UK now for a little over 5 years I wondered whether Gwen thought the beer scene here had changed? Simple answer yes! “When I first moved here one of the reasons I decided to open a brewery was that I was very unhappy with the beer.” She tells stories of quaint English pubs but with awful beer that after only half a pint give you a terrible hangover!

We talked about when she first came it was just Cherry Red’s, Brewdog, and The Post Office Vaults but there is a lot more choice now with places like Clink, Pure Bar, Tilt, and The Wolf and that she’s been involved in the Beer Bash too. Is this something she’s enjoyed?

“I thought it was great. That was the only beer festival I cared about. It was a lot of fun as an attendee and as a brewer. It was great to interact with people drinking my beer and it was great that so many other brewers were there who you could talk to about their beers. And the beer was really good!”

So now that she’s heading home I asked her about the future of the brewery. “I sold the equipment, the Sacre Brew name is still mine, but [a brewery] will continue on in the same premises. I’ve been training them on how to use the kit. There are 6 people who own it; two of them were [Sacre Brew] supporters. They share a passion for beer and the dream of owning a brewery so this was their opportunity.” She told me the handover is going pretty well they’re learning quickly and are enthusiastic. Since Gwen has worked out a lot of kinks in the kit and established links with suppliers the process should be a little easier for them. They are currently working twice a week either brewing or bottling or both.

When we spoke she told me two of their beers were nearly ready with a third ready to bottle and a fourth ready to dry hop. As a side note we’re hoping to go and talk to them (Punchline Brewing) in the coming weeks.

I finished up by asking Gwen if she had any plans to continue brewing when she gets back? She said that right now she’s not sure, she needs to do a bit of groundwork. She already has a lot of contacts over there particularly in Queens, where she will be living. “I do have a business opportunity to start a new microbrewery so I’ve been doing a lot of research on that and getting quotes but right now I need to be there to find a premises, as rent in New York is crazy and at the volumes discussed we wouldn’t cover the rent.” She said that she still has opportunities to help out in breweries as she did on her last holiday. Also that as brewers come and go, she could end up working for another brewery and this is her fallback position if she can’t open her own place. The good news is the name would live on as maybe Sacre Brew New York or Sacre Brew Queens.

I asked her if there were breweries in our ever-improving scene in the Midlands that she would tell people to keep an eye on? “Glasshouse, Josh’s brewery. Just from talking to him I can tell he’s a good brewer. The way he describes malts and flavours and what he does with them as a pallette is very revealing and I don’t get that from too many other brewers. I’ve had a few of his beers as they’ve become available and they are very impressive.”

To close out our chat I asked her what she’d miss most about the UK and her answer was quite surprising! “Washing machines are superior in this country and there are some birds that we don’t have in the United States or New York that are really cool and there’s lots of other little things that have made it nice.” She did also say, of course, that there were many people she’s met and worked with over the past 5 years that she will miss and I am sure that many of them will miss her too. I know I will.

Everyone on the blog wishes you good luck Gwen in your next enterprise and keep us informed I quite fancy a blog trip to New York for Sacre Brew V2.